Dokumentation zu: sockets(WL)

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        Sockets and the socket daemon

        If you want to connect to another computer on the internet
        you would like to use sockets. Sockets are not part of the
        driver so there has to be someting in the lib. Here it
        is: the socket daemon.

        It helps you to create and maintain state of your connection
        with various protocols and different computers.

        What sockets are and how you use them is not subject of this
        text. Maybe the examples help you but be encouraged to read
        some real text on them.

        Creating a socket
        You could create internet domain sockets with tcp or udp
        protocol. Listening and sending of data is possible. Also
        there is on protocol overlying tcp available: mudmode.

        To create a socket you call the daemon which will return you
        a socket object. All further handling is done by that

          #include <daemon/socket.h>

          sock_ob = (object) SOCKETD->New(...);

        The full prototype of New() is as follows:
        object New(int type, string host, int port, closure cb, int opts)

        The Type is one of:
          TCP_OPEN      An outgoing tcp connection.
          TCP_LISTEN    Listen on a tcp port for incoming connections.
          UDP           An incoming or outgoing udp connections.

        The Host of the destination could be specified as an IP address
        like "" or via a DNS name which will be resolved
        first "". Note that it is used only for TCP_OPEN and has
        to be zero for the other types.

        The Port is an Integer:
          TCP_OPEN      The port on the remote computer we want to
                        connect to. Its not possible to choose the packet's
                        source port, a random number will be used.
          TCP_LISTEN    The port on which we will await connections.
          UDP           The port on which we will listen and also the
                        port to send packets _from_.
                        It is not possible to send udp packets without
                        listening at the port we want as source.

        The callback closure cb gets all the data and status or error
        messages of that socket. It is described further down.

        The Opts may be
        SOCKET_ASCII    which is also the default. Its not possible to
                        receive data with embedded \000 which are filtered.
                        You will get the data as strings.
        SOCKET_BINARY   Here is all data possible. Because its not (yet)
                        possible to have \000 in strings in lpc you will
                        get the data as array of chars (ints).
        SOCKET_MUDMODE  This is a layer over TCP whichs allows you to send
                        complex LPC data types rather than limited strings.
                        The receiver is most likely also a mud where the
                        same data is reconstructed. It is possible to send
                        mapbe ({ 3, 3.0, "hi" }) over the network and the
                        receiver will just get that (the mixed* array)
                        rather than a string. Mind that it is not possible
                        to send objectpointer. Also be careful with
                        double references which are not guaranteed to be
                        restored correctly.
        Using a socket
        To handle the socket you could call the following functions
        in your socket object. They will return 1 if all seems to
        be correct but real errors are reported via callback.

        int Write(mixed data)
          The given data is written to the socket. If nothing goes wrong
          it will end up on the far partner's computer. The data may
          be a string or an array of integers (which may contain zeros).
          If the socket is in SOCKET_MUDMODE any lpc structure may be
          written (without object pointer).
          Note that SOCKET_ASCII/SOCKET_BINARY is not interpreted here.

        int Send(string host, int port, mixed msg)
          This is the same but used on UDP sockets only. Because UDP is
          connectionless you have to give your destination on each Send().
          Host and port are specified like for New().
          The UDP packet size is limited to MAX_SEND bytes. If the msg
          requires more space (quite unpredictable in MUDMODE) it is
          split into several packages. The receiver must handle that
          or you should not send that big a message.
          Sending MUDMODE UDP is not (yet) possible.

        object Accept(closure acc_cb)
          Opens a pending connection on a listend to socket. You have to
          call it in the main listen socket object.
          It returns you a new socket object for that connection.
          All data and status messages of the new connection will be
          handled via acc_cb, which may be the same function as your
          main callback function.
          The listening socket could be closed after the new connection
          is fully established, if you want to handle only one connection
          at a time.

        int Close()
          The connection is ended and the socket object removed.
          If you use remove() on the socket object an emergency Close()
          is called but it is better to do this right and never call
          remove() on the socket object.

        mixed* State()
          Returns you an array with Information on that connection.
          S_SOCKOBJ   The object itself (really useless info, isn't it?)
          S_TYPE      The type of the socket. Additional to TCP_OPEN,
                      TCP_LISTEN and UDP there is TCP_ACCEPT. That is the
                      type of accepted connections.
          S_TICKET    An integer array holding the ticket of that object
                      for xerq communication. Not needed in normal cases.
          S_STATE     The state of the socket:
                        S_UNCONNECTED  No connection (yet) maybe we wait
                                       for the DNS resolving.
                        S_CONNECTED    We are connected (yeah!).
                        S_LISTEN       The socket listens for connections.
                        S_UDP          The socket listens for connections
                                       and we may send packages out.
                        S_CLOSING      The socket is or will be closed in
                                       short time. Don't do anything but
                                       clear up anymore.
          S_OPTS      The opts as described above. Mind that the opts
                      are bits and setting SOCKET_MODMODE will set
                      SOCKET_BINARY automatically.
          S_HOST      The remote host.
          S_PORT      The remote port.
          S_LPORT     The local port.
          S_CALLBACK  The callback closure.
          S_OBJECT    The object the callback closure is bound to. This
                      is the only one which could call the functions in
                      the socket object.
          S_PENDING   Pending data or number of data to be sent. Don't use.
                      (It's the preconnection data buffer.)
          S_OWNER     The uid of S_OBJECT.
          S_LISTEN_FD Used internally on accepted connections. The file
                      descriptor of the listening socket. Is overwritten
                      with S_PORT after connect.
          S_TO_WRITE  How many packets are to be written to the erq.
                      Note that the erq could handle only small chunks of
                      data so this is not the number of Write()s or
          S_WRITTEN   How many of the S_TO_WRITE packets were acknoledged
                      by the erq with SOCKET_WRITTEN. If both numbers are
                      equal all data should be in the erq's queue.
          S_RECEIVED  How many data packets were received from the erq.
          S_WAITS     The sockets wait state as follows:
                        S_WAITS_NOT    no waiting
                        S_WAITS_ERQ    packet send to erq, waiting for reply
                        S_WAITS_INCOM  erq replied SOCKET_INCOMPLETE,
                                       waiting for socket to unblock
                        S_WAITS_BLOCK  erq replied ERQ_E_WOULDBLOCK
                                       waiting for socket to unblock

        The callback system
        Whenever something happens to your sockets it will be send to
        your callback closure. It should have the following prototype:
        void cb(object sock_obj, int action, extra1, extra2, extra3)

        The sock_obj specifies the connection on which the action took
        place. This is handy if you handle multiple sockets over one

        The following actions exist:
          SOCKET_READY:      The socket is ready to receive or send data.
                             No extra info is given except when the socket
                             is one opened by Accept():
                             extra1: The listening socket object (stupid).
                             extra2: The remote host (string).
                             extra3: The remote port (int).

          SOCKET_ACCEPT:     A listen port detected an incoming connection.
                             you could accept it with Accept().

          SOCKET_READ:       Incoming data is ready.
                             extra1: The data.
                             extra2: The remote host (UDP only).
                             extra3: The remote port (UDP only).

          SOCKET_WRITTEN:    Some data was sent out successful.
                             Note that your data will be chunkized so that
                             one Write() may result in several callbacks.
                             If all pending data is written, extra1 is
                             set to 1.
                             extra1: All data written if set.

          SOCKET_INCOMPLETE: Not all data could be written. The xerq is
                             buffering the rest and will notify us with
                             SOCKET_WRITTEN if the writing is complete.
                             This is informational only, you do not need
                             to take any action or notice.
                             extra1: Amount of data of the actual chunk
                                     which could be written.
                             extra2: Amount of data of whole LPC chunk
                                     which could be written.
                             Note that there might be several such callbacks
                             until the packet is written completely.

          SOCKET_CLOSE:      This is called when the connection is closed
                             either from you or the other side.

          SOCKET_ERROR:      An error occured.
                             extra1: Short error message (of the xerq)(string)
                             extra2: The xerq packet with the error or zero
                             extra3: Description of the error ERQ_E_UNKNOWN.
                             If extra2 is an array (of int) you will find the
                             xerq error code in extra2[0]. See erq(C) also.

          SOCKET_NOPEND:     You tried to accept on a listening socket
                             where no pending connection is (anymore). This
                             is sent to the socket object you got from the
                             Accept(). That object will be destroyed

        Principle of operation

        Here is a raw sketch of how sockets are supposed to work.
        All three szenarios are described. Its only a sketch NOT code!

        * outgoing connection

          socket = New(TCP_OPEN)
            callback SOCKET_READY
            callback SOCKET_WRITTEN 1
            callback SOCKET_READ, "hi you\n"
            callback SOCKET_CLOSE

        * incoming connection

          socket = New(TCP_LISTEN)
            callback SOCKET_READY
            callback SOCKET_ACCEPT
          sock_2 = socket->Accept()
            callbac2 SOCKET_READY
            callbac2 SOCKET_WRITTEN 1
            callback SOCKET_ACCEPT                (but we ignore that)
            callbac2 SOCKET_READ, "hi you\n"
            callbac2 SOCKET_WRITTEN 1             (see the callbacks are
            callbac2 SOCKET_CLOSE                  asynchronous)
            callback SOCKET_CLOSE

          We could have done sock_3 = socket->Accept() after the second
          SOCKET_ACCEPT to handle to connections at a time.

        * UDP connection

          socket = New(UDP)
            callback SOCKET_READY
          socket->Send("whos there", host1, port1);
            callback SOCKET_WRITTEN 1
          socket->Send("and there?\n\n", host2, port2);
            callback SOCKET_WRITTEN 1
            callback SOCKET_READ, "hi you\n", host1, port1
            callback SOCKET_CLOSE


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